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汽车内饰材料安全标准评价及测试

日期:2020-09-23|作者:admin |人气:

  SUIZHEQICHEGONGYEDEXUNMENGFAZHAN,RENMENTINGLIUZAICHENEIDESHIJIANYUELAIYUEZHANG,CHENEIDEHUANJINGZHILIANGJIANGGENGDAXIANDUDIYINGXIANGZHERENMENDEJIANKANG,YEYINCIYUELAIYUESHOUDAOGUANZHU。CHENEIHUANJINGZHILIANGDEZHONGYAOWURANYUANSHIQICHENEISHICAILIAO,ZHEIZHUYAOSHIYOUFANGZHIPIN、PIGEHESULIAODENGQICHENEISHICAILIAOZAISHENGCHANJIAGONGSHICANLIUDEYOUJIRONGJIZAOCHENGDE,BAOKUOBEN、JIAQUAN、ERJIABENDENGHUIFAXINGHUAHEWU,ZHEIZHONGYUANYINYINQIDEWURANZAIGANGGOUMAIDEXINCHEZHONGYOUQITUCHU。

 

五百万彩票网   YI、QICHENEISHICAILIAOANQUANXINGNENGPINGJIAZHIBIAO

 

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  1.1CHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGPINGJIA

  (1)CHENEIKONGQIWURANWUDELAIYUANCHENEIWURANWU

  YISHILAIYUANYUQICHEZHUTICAILIAOZHONGSUOHANYOUHAIWUZHIDESHIFANG;

  ERSHILAIYUANYUCHENEIZHUANGSHICAILIAOZHONGSUOHANYOUHAIWUZHIDESHIFANG;

  SANSHILAIYUANYUWAIJIEWURANWUDEJINRU;

  SISHILAIYUANYUCHENEIJIACHENGRENYUANDESHENGHUOXIGUAN。

  QICHEZHUTIYONGSULIAO、XIANGJIAOHEHUAXUEXIANWEIDENGGAOFENZIWUZHIZHONGWEICANJIAJUHEDEXIAOFENZIWUZHIRUBENYIXI、CUSUANYIXI、BINGXI、FENQUANLEIJIJUHEDUJIAOXIAODEFENZIDESHIFANG;CHENEIZHUANGSHICAILIAOZISHENJIQISHIYONGDEGEZHONGJIAOZHANJIZHONGDOUHUIHANYOUWURANWUBINGZAOCHENGCHENEIKONGQIDEERCIWURAN,WURANWUZHUYAOYOUJIAQUAN、BEN、JIABEN、LVFANG、BINGTONG、ERJIABEN、XITING、LVDAITINGHEFANGXIANGTINGDENG;

五百万彩票网   WAIJIEWURANWUZHUYAOYOUYIYANGHUATAN、TANQINGHUAHEWU、QINGYANGHUAWUDENG,QICHEWEIQIJICHENEIKONGDIAOZHENGFAQIZHANGQISHIYONGHOUGUANDAONEIJILEIDEWURANWUYEHUIJINRUCHENEI;JIACHENGRENYUANWEIGAISHANXINCHEDEQIWEISUOPENDEKONGQIQINGXINJI、JIAQUANQINGCHUJI、CHEYONGXIANGLIAODENGYESHICHENEIKONGQIDEERCIWURANYUAN,JIACHENGRENYUANZAICHENEIXIYANYEHUIZENGJIAHUIFAXINGYOUHAIWUZHIHECHENAIZHILEIDEKONGQIWURANWUSHUIPING。

 

五百万彩票网   (2)CHENEIKONGQIWURANDEWEIHAI

五百万彩票网   QICHEZAIXINGSHIGUOCHENGZHONG,CHENEISHIYIGEXIANGDUIFENGBIDEHUANJING,JIACHENGRENYUANZHANGQICHUYUSHOUWURANYANZHONGDECHENEIHUANJINGZHONG,HUICHUXIANTOUTONG、FALIDENGZHENGZHUANG,YANZHONGSHIHUICHUXIANPIYAN、XIAOCHUAN、MIANYILIDIXIA,SHENZHISHIBAIXIBAOJIANSHAO。YINCI,BIXUJIANLIWANSHANDECESHIBIAOZHUNYIPINGJIACHENEIHUANJINGDEWURANCHENGDU。

  1.2ZURANXINGNENG

五百万彩票网   QICHENEISHICAILIAOBIXUYAOYOUHENHAODEYANSHAOHEZURANXINGNENG,WEIJIACHENGRENYUANTIGONGYIDINGDESHENGCUNHETAOSHENGSHIJIAN。FADAGUOJIADUICIZHIDINGLEYANGEDEFAGUI,RU:MEIGUOLIANBANGFAGUIFMVSS 571.302、GUOJIBIAOZHUNHUAZUZHIISO 3795YIJIOUZHOUHUIYILISHIHUIZHILING95/28/ECZHENDUIQICHENEISHICAILIAODERANSHAOTEXINGJUNYOUGUIDING。

五百万彩票网   WOGUOYU1987NIANYEZHIDINGLEXIANGYINGDEQIANGZHIXINGBIAOZHUNGB 8410—1987,JING1994NIANHE2006NIANXIANHOULIANGCIXIUDING,XINGCHENGLEGB 8410—2006,GAIBIAOZHUNDUIYINGYUFMVSS 571.302。WOGUOBIAOZHUNGB 8410—2006DUIZURANXINGNENGYAOQIUTAIDI,BUZUYIYOUXIAOFANGZHIHEYANHUANHUOZAIDEFASHENG,QIZHONGDUISUOYOUQICHENEISHICAILIAODEZURANXINGNENGZHIYOUYIGEJIANDANYAOQIU,JIUSHIZAIXIANGGUANCESHITIAOJIANXIASHUIPINGRANSHAOSUDUBUDAYU100 mm/min。ZHEIDAOMENJIANFEICHANGDI,YIZHIYUDADUOSHUSULIAO,TEBIESHIRESUXINGSULIAOJIHUBUYONGJINGGUORENHEZURANCHULIJIUNENGMANZUYAOQIU。ZHEIYANGDENEISHICAILIAOZAIFASHENGHUOZAISHI,SHIJISHANGQUECHENGLE“ZHURANCAILIAO”。YINCI,KETONGSHIKAOLVJIARUQICHENEISHICAILIAODEZURANDENGJI、YANGZHISHUHEYANMIDUDENGZHIBIAO。

  图:阻燃剂的分类
 

  1.3WUHUAXINGNENG

  雾化性能是汽车内饰材料至关重要的指标。汽车内饰材料如皮革、塑料、纺织物以及粘结材料的胶粘剂等,都含有一些挥发性物质,在一定条件下会挥发出来在汽车窗户或挡风玻璃上凝结,严重影响驾驶者的视线和行车安全。目前国内尚未有对雾化性能的统一要求,国内外部分汽车标准化组织和汽车品牌生产商对汽车内饰用皮革的雾化值要求一般为≤2mg~5mg。
 

五百万彩票网   1.4QITAZHIBIAO

五百万彩票网   1.4.1DUOHUANFANGTING

  JINNIANLAI,MEITIDUOCIBAODAOGUONEIDUOKUANQICHEBEIJIANCHUQIANGZHIAIWUDUOHUANFANGTING(PAHs),YOUYUPAHsDEWEIHAI,DUOGEGUOJIAHEDIQUDUIQIJINXINGLEXIANZHI,RU:OUMENGZHILING2005/69/EC(76/769/EECZHILINGZHIDI27CIXIUDINGBAN)YAOQIUTIANJIAYOUHELUNTAIZHONGDEBENBING(a)BI(BaP)HANLIANG<1 mg/kgHUOZHE8ZHONGDUOHUANFANGTING(PAHs)DEZONGHANLIANG<10mg/kg,MEIGUOHUANJINGSHUZEYAOQIUYOUXIANPINGGUDE16ZHONGPAHsBUDEHANYOU,DEGUOGSRENZHENGBIAOZHUNZEK 01.4-08YAOQIUBaPXIANZHIWEI1 mg/kgHUOZHE18ZHONGPAHsZONGHANLIANGXIANZHIWEI10 mg/kg(DIERLEICAILIAO)。GUONEIDUICHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGYOUSUOXIANDINGDEGUOBIAO,RUGB/T 27630—2011《CHENGYONGCHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGPINGJIAZHINAN》、GB/T17729—2009《ZHANGTUKECHENEIKONGQIZHILIANGYAOQIU》,QUEWEIHANGAIZHEIXIANGZHIAIWU。YINCI,DUOHUANFANGTINGHANLIANGZUOWEIQICHENEIZHUANGSHICAILIAOANQUANPINGJIADEZHIBIAOYESHIBIYAODE。

五百万彩票网   1.4.2JINYONGZURANJI

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五百万彩票网   ER、ZHIBIAOCESHIFANGFA

五百万彩票网   2.1CHENEIKONGQIWURANWUHANLIANGCEDING

  GENJUWURANWULAIYUAN,FENBIEDUIFEIJINSHUCAILIAO、LINGBUJIANHEZHENGCHEJINXINGKONGQIWURANWUDEJIANCE。CHENEIKONGQIWURANWUDECESHIZHUYAOYOUSANLEI:QIWEIPINGJIA,ZHUYAOKAORENDEGANGUANXIUJUEJINXINGDENGJIPINGJIA(VDA270),YEKECAIYONGDIANZIBICEDING(SAE J351);HUIFAXINGYOUJIWURANWU(VOC)DINGLIANGFENXI,BAOKUODINGKONGQIXIANGSEPUFA、RETUOFUFA、GAOXIAOYEXIANGSEPUFADENG;TANDANYANGHUAWUHANLIANGCEDING,KECAIYONGBUFENGUANGHONGWAIXIANQITICEDINGFA(GB/T 28370)。

  目前,国内对整车VOC的检测已发布相关标准,而对非金属零部件的VOC检测尚无相关标准,国内对非金属零部件的VOC检测方法不统一。关于零部件及材料的检测标准包括:ISO 12219、VDA 270、DIN 13130、DIN EN 13725、VDA 275、VDA277、VDA 278、SAE J351等多项标准。关于整车的测试方法及有机污染物限值要求,主要依据国家标准HJ/T 400—2007和GB/T 27630—2011进行测试并评价。
 

五百万彩票网   2.2ZURANXINGCESHI

  ZURANXINGCESHIJIUSHIBEICEWUTUICHIHUOYANYANXU、MANYAN、KUOSANDENGNENGLIDESHIYANFANGFA。JINGGUODUONIANDEFAZHAN,ZURANXINGCESHIYIJINGXINGCHENGDUOZHONGBIAOZHUN,CHENGWEIXIANGGUANYEJIEFEICHANGZHONGDIANDEJIANCEXIANGMU。DADUOSHUDECHEYONGNEISHICAILIAORANSHAOXINGNENGCESHIDOUYAOQIUZAIKEKEDESHIYANHUANJINGXIA,CAIYONGBIAOZHUNGUIDINGDEHUOYUAN,DUISHIYANCAILIAOJINXINGBUTONGDEHUOYUANZHUANGJI,RANHOUGUANCHAHEPINGJIACAILIAODERANSHAOXIANXIANG。RU,GB 8410—2006ZHONGGUIDINGLEQICHENEISHICAILIAORANSHAOTEXINGDESHIYANFANGFAHEPINGJIAZHIBIAO。ZURANXINGCESHIHAIKECANZHAOXIALIEBIAOZHUN:DIN 75200、ISO 3795、ASTM D 5132、FMVSS 302、JIS D1201、UL 94DENG。

  图:塑料阻燃等级测试
 

五百万彩票网   2.3WUHUAXINGNENG

  TONGGUODUIQICHENEIZHUANGSHICAILIAOJINXINGWUHUASHIYAN,SHIXIANDUIZHEIXIECAILIAOZHONGKEHUIFAXINGWUZHIDEKONGZHI,YIYOUXIAODIJIANGDICHENEIHUANJINGWURAN,YIJINGCHENGWEIQICHEJIQICHENEISHICAILIAOSHENGCHANQIYEKONGZHICHANPINZHILIANGDEYIGEZHONGYAOSHOUDUAN。

  目前,汽车内饰材料的雾化试验方法,包括重量法、光泽度法和雾度法,其成雾原理相同,都是利用物质的挥发—冷凝这一原理来实现成雾的过程,区别在于测量的参数是冷凝组分、成雾值还是雾度。可参照的标准有德国标准DIN 75201,美国标准SAE J1756、ASTM D5393,英国标准BS EN 14288,国际标准ISO 6452。
 

  2.4QITAXINGNENGCEDING

  2.4.1DUOHUANFANGTING

  多环芳烃测试原理为:将代表性样品剪碎,用合适溶剂(如甲苯、环己烷等)超声或索氏萃取,净化后用气相色谱-质谱联用仪或高效液相色谱进行分析。德国GS认证标准ZEK 01.4-08明确规定了多环芳烃的限量要求和测试方法,用该法测定的每种PAH的检出限为0.2 mg/kg。此外,可参照的标准还有:ISO/TC 45/SC 3、EPA-TO-13A、NF X43-404-12-2009、VDI 4300 Blatt 2等。
 

五百万彩票网   2.4.2JINYONGZURANJI

  SUIRANZURANJINENGSHIYIRANWUZHIRANSHAOJIANMAN、ZHONGZHIHUONANYIRANSHAO,DANYINQIDUIRENTIHEHUANJINGDOUHUIZAOCHENGWEIHAI,BUFENZURANJI(RUHANXIUZURANJI)YIBEILIERUJINYONGMINGDAN,RUOUMENG76/769/EECZHILINGMINGQUEGUIDINGJINYONGXIUXIZURANJI。JINYONGZURANJIDECESHIGUOCHENGYIBANWEI:YANGPINYONGRONGJICHAOSHENGCUIQU,GUOLVNONGSUOCUIQUYE,GC-MS/LCMS/GC-NPDJIANCE。KECANZHAOGB/T 30512—2014《QICHEJINYONGWUZHIYAOQIU》ZHONGGUIDINGDEFANGFAJINXINGJIANCE。

 

  SAN、CHENEIWURANWUYINGDUICUOSHI

  JUDIAOCHA,CHENEIHUANJINGWURANSHICHEWAIDE10BEIYISHANG,XIANGYAOCONGGENBENSHANGEZHITA,KETONGGUOYUANTOUKONGZHIHEMODUANCHULILIANGZHONGTUJINGJINXING。

五百万彩票网   3.1YUANTOUKONGZHI

  目前,国内针对汽车内饰材料环保安全的标准主要有GB/T 27630—2011《乘用车内空气质量评价指南》、GB/T30512—2014《汽车禁用物质要求》等,标准中要求的指标不全面,部分指标,如阻燃性,要求太低,国家或行业应出台更全面、更严格的相关标准,避免污染物“黑洞的出现”。另外,各生产厂家应该执行更严格的标准,选用环保型材料,从源头上控制污染物的产生。
 

  3.2MODUANCHULI

  DUICHENEIHUANJINGKONGQIWURANWUDEMODUANCHULI,JIANYIRUXIA:DUOKAICHUANGTONGFENG;ZAICHENEIFANGZHIHUOXINGTAN、ZHUTANDENGXIFUXINGJINGHUACAILIAO;ANZHUANGCHEZAIKONGQIJINGHUAQI,RUQICHEYANGBA、GUANGCHUMEICHEZAIKONGQIJINGHUAQI、TAIYANGNENGCHEZAIKONGQIJINGHUAQIDENG;SHIYONGSHENGWUMEIFENJIEYOUHAIWUZHI。

 

 
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